training materials that have been/are being
developed include field safety protocols, site monitoring forms, and
site-specific conservation plans. We also expanded our monitoring program to
include quantitative measures of leaf and stem damage that can be variously
attributed to causes such as larval hostplant activity and herbicidal drift.
Thanks to a generous gift from the Plant Diagnostic Laboratory3,
we know that none of the leaf/stem damage can be attributed to plant
In the 2011 field season we will work with property owners, government
representatives, and volunteers to formulate management plans for each
lupine site. We will continue recruiting volunteer sponsors for many of the
lupine populations. We will further our understanding of the primary threats
to lupine survival we have observed so far: mowing, over-grazing, fire
suppression/forest succession, invasive species, herbicides, stem boring
beetles, and site development. Climate change impacts each of these threats
in complex ways and may also play a role in the lupine’s future. By the end
of 2011 we will have a social network of lupine stakeholders that can work
together to preserve this beautiful wildflower for generations of
Marylanders to come.
1. USDA, NRCS. 2010. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 12 October
2010). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
2. Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources.
2007. Rare, Threatened and Endangered Plants of Maryland. Annapolis, MD USA
3. Plant Diagnostics Laboratory, Dept. of Plant Sciences and Landscape
Architecture, University of Maryland.